24.1.08

UGA 4450 Class: Diffusion of Innovations Annotated Bibliographies

Senior level undergraduates in my Emerging New Media class were asked to do this assignment, including posting it here with or without their names.

Academic journal articles are the best for this assignment.

Diffusion of Innovations Bibliography Pairs Assignment
Post your alphabetized, annotated bibliography as a comment in response to this posting.


You were already to have found 5 bibliographic entries for the diffusion of innovations as applied to a new/emerging media technology before class January 16, and posted them to WebCT via http://www.eits.uga.edu/myweb/help/webinterface.htm Please help each other out. That is the older, assignment one.

Assignment

From your pairing up with one other individual in class, combine your APA Style articles and find 10 more diffusion of new communication technologies articles (in class January 16). This gives 20 total between the 2 of you. Please order them alphabetically as demonstrated in the APA Style book (there are many free guides online for APA style*). Convert your biblio into an annotated bibliography by including the article abstract or summary. This will be found at the beginning of the article or in a library database from which you found (or can re-search by going online).

For grading purposes, post your text as a comment to this posting.

*See http://www.ithaca.edu/library/course/apa.html and http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html for APA style help. See http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/ for an example of how to do annotated bibliographies. Remember, academic journal articles are the best for this assignment.

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10 Comments:

At 24 January, 2008 23:40, Anonymous Josh Bayne & George Alread said...

Ali-Vehmas, T. & Luukkainen, S, (2008). Service adoption strategies of push over cellular. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing. 12 (1), 34-44.

Push to talk over Cellular (PoC) is a new still evolving service concept for mobile systems. Traditionally Push to Talk (PTT) service has been used in proprietary networks for decades but recently new Internet Protocol (IP) based specifications for PoC have been introduced. The service has been available in lead markets since 2004 but the mass-market adoption has not yet taken place. Commercialization process of PoC still includes many technical and market risks. The PoC technology has, however, potential to create new mobile service evolution path starting from voice and extending later on to other group applications. This document reviews different strategies related to standardization, system architecture, vendors’ product strategies, substitutes, regulation and service provision relevant for PoC and discusses the various options for mobile operators and vendors how to implement this new service successfully.


Brown, S., Chervany, N., Reinicke, B. (2007). What Matters When Introducing New Information Technology. Communications Of The ACM. 50 (9), 91-96

This article discusses the dissemination of new information technologies and how to discern the marketable features and timeliness of innovations. A key factor in implementation of system changes is support by top management. A chart of problem areas such as organizational commitment, planning, infrastructure and communication helps define challenges inherent in even the most beneficial changes. The factor and process elements across implementation stages are analyzed, and strategies to avoid delays, cost overruns, and resistance are outlined.

Carey, M., Schofield, P., Jefford, M., Krishnasamy, M., & Aranda, S. (2007). The development of audio-visual materials to prepare patients for medical procedures: an oncology application. European Journal of Cancer Care. 16 (5), 417-423.

This paper describes a systematic process for the development of educational audio-visual materials that are designed to prepare patients for potentially threatening procedures. Literature relating to the preparation of patients for potentially threatening medical procedures, psychological theory, theory of diffusion of innovations and patient information was examined. Four key principles were identified as being important: (1) stakeholder consultation, (2) provision of information to prepare patients for the medical procedure, (3) evidence-based content, and (4) promotion of patient confidence. These principles are described along with an example of the development of an audio-visual resource to prepare patients for chemotherapy treatment. Using this example, practical strategies for the application of each of the principles are described. The principles and strategies described may provide a practical, evidence-based guide to the development of other types of patient audio-visual materials.

Corkill, Dave (2007-04) Why can't we do it alone? [innovation management]. Engineering Management. 36(4), 36-39

This paper answers the question why only few companies succeed in constructing effective external R&D innovation networks. It could be because there are many combinations of expertise and resources that can lead to the development of new product and processes, or the identification of new markets and customers. It is therefore of vital importance that key characteristics are identified that lead to effective R&D innovation and a process for evaluating success. Themes that prevent companies from achieving greater R&D innovation effectiveness with external networks are discussed.

Delre, Sebastiano; Jager, Wander; Janssen, Marco (2007-06) Diffusion dynamics in small-world networks with heterogeneous consumers. Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory. 185(18), 185-202

The authors demonstrate a technique to optically imprint through linear beam propagation an index pattern in the bulk of a photorefractive crystal capable of beam reshaping and waveguiding. The procedure is based on the separation into two distinct phases of the photosensitive and refractive response, so that light is in all cases undergoing only linear propagation. When saturation in the response becomes dominant, the scheme is able to achieve both one-dimensional and two-dimensional waveguiding. The result allows the straightforward writing of multiwaveguide circuits, where traditional schemes based on spatial solitons are in practice burdened by nonlinearity


Does Not Compute. (2007, November 10). Economist. 385, 18-20.

The article, part of a special section on technology in India and China, reports on the growth of the mobile phone market in India while, simultaneously, Indian consumers have not embraced the Internet or personal computers. An overview of India's wireless revolution is presented. Other ways in which computer technology is being diffused in India are discussed, such as smart phones and netPC, which operates in a similar fashion to a television.


Gorschek, Tony; Wohlin, Claes; Garre, Per; Larsson, Stig (2006-12) A Model for Technology Transfer in Practice. IEEE Software. 88(8), 88-95

The article discusses research conducted in a partnership between Blekinge Institute of Technology and two companies, Danaher Motion Särö AB and ABB which devised a technology transfer model. Technology transfer is considered a requirement and provides a way to improve industry development and business process. It also validates academic research results in real setting. The research approach and technology transfer model involve seven steps including the identification of potential improvement areas based on industry needs through the process of assessment and observation activities, formulation of research agenda using several assessments, conduct of laboratory validation, performance of static and dynamic validation, and release of the solution. INSET: Industry Partners.

Harrison, Warren (2006-10). Technology Transfer and the Tech Broker. IEEE Software. 5(3), 5-7

The article talks about technology transfer, the process of transferring an idea from the developer to end users. Cited as an example is the transfer of research developed in an academy to an industry. However, the software development community in academies are anxious to transfers their technologies to end users. It is also noted that selling out a new technology is not an easy task because it requires a product that meets the needs of the customers. It is also important to educate the customers about the product and a mechanism to reduce the barriers involved in transferring the technology.

Henderson, C. & Dancy, M. (2008). Physics faculty and educational
researchers: Divergent expectations as barriers to the diffusion of innovations. American Journal of Physics, 76, 79-91.

Physics Education Research (PER) practitioners have engaged in substantial curriculum development and dissemination work in recent years. Yet, it appears that this work has had minimal influence on the fundamental teaching practices of the typical physics faculty. To better understand this situation, interviews were conducted with five likely users of physics education research. All reported making changes in their instructional practices and all were influenced, to some extent, by educational research. Yet, none made full use of educational research and most had complaints about their interactions with educational researchers. In this paper we examine how these instructors used educational research in making instructional decisions and identify divergent expectations about how researchers and faculty can work together to improve student learning. Although different instructors emphasized different aspects of this discrepancy between expectations, we believe that they are all related to a single underlying issue: the typical dissemination model is to disseminate curricular innovations and have faculty adopt them with minimal changes, while faculty expect researchers to work with them to incorporate research-based knowledge and materials into their unique instructional situations. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Karlgaard, R, (2007, November 26). How Fast Can You Learn? Forbes. 180 (11). 31.

An editorial is presented discussing the adoption of new technologies. The author states that individuals rather than organizations drive the adoption of new technologies in the workplace, such as the BlackBerry hand held computer, wireless Internet, wikis and online social networks. Businesses should rely on the mass of people using the Internet to tap into the wisdom of crowds.

Lee, Matthew K. O.; Cheung, Christy M. K.; Zhaohui Chen (2007-11) Understanding user acceptance of multimedia messaging services: An empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology. 2066(12), 2066-2077

Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS) is a new medium that enriches people's personal communication with their business partners, friends, or family. Following the success of Short Message Services, MMS has the potential to be the next mobile commerce “killer application” which is useful and popular among consumers; however, little is known about why people intend to accept and use it. Building upon the motivational theory and media richness theory, the research model captures both extrinsic (e.g., perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) and intrinsic (e.g., perceived enjoyment) motivators as well as perceived media richness to explain user intention to use MMS. An online survey was conducted and 207 completed questionnaires were collected. By integrating the motivation and the media richness perspectives, the research model explains 65% of the variance. In addition, the results present strong support to the existing theoretical links as well as to those newly hypothesized in this study. Implications from the current investigation for research and practice are provided.

Lipper, S. (2007). Investigating Postadoption Utilization: An Examination Into the Role of Interorganizational and Technology Trust. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. 54 (3). 468-48.4

Grounded in the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examines the influence of technology trust and interorganizational trust on postadoption utilization. This study extends the innovation diffusion literature by drawing upon past diffusion research and considering trust-based determinants in facilitating technology usage. Field interviews were conducted to develop an understanding of the user population and the unique challenges the individuals experienced while working with the new system. The results of the interviews enabled the author to identify which variables to investigate further through the use of a survey data collection protocol. In the present study, 273 first-tier supply chain members of the second-largest U.S. automotive service-parts logistics operation, who were recently introduced to a new supply chain management technology, were surveyed. Using a structural equation model, nine hypotheses were tested. As hypothesized, an individual's technology trust and interorganizational trust have an effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, which further influence postadoption technology utilization behavior. The results suggest that even in supply chains where usage is mandated, the presence of technology and interorganizational trust can increase individual utilization of new technologies. Implications of this study along with suggestions for future research are provided.


Luukkonen, Terttu; Palmberg, Christopher (2007-05) Living up to the Expectations Set by ICT? The Case of Biotechnology Commercialization in Finland. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management. 329(21), 329-349

This paper examines the dynamics and bottlenecks in the commercialisation of biotechnology in Finland by using the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) industry as a benchmark. The paper considers both ICT and biotechnology within the dynamic life-cycle model of technological revolutions by Perez. For an empirical comparison, it applies the concept of a 'competence bloc' as an interpretive and focusing device. A competence bloc may be defined as a set of actors, functional competences, and institutions that are necessary for large-scale commercialisation and industrialisation of new emerging technologies. In spite of the many differences between the ICT and biotechnology industries, the comparison serves as a heuristic device for pinpointing important features in the framework conditions of commercialisation in biotechnology. The paper shows that a major bottleneck in the development of the biotechnology industry in Finland is the scarcity of industrialists to transform innovations into large-scale production

Persaily, Andy (2007-09) Members First! Newsletter Covers Tech Council News. ASHRAE Journal. 3(0), 3-3

This article reports on the "Members First!" newsletter started in 2005, by the Technology Council to the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) membership. Each issue updates activities of the committees reporting to Technology Council: Standards, Research Administration, Technical Activities, Environmental Health and Refrigeration. The Members First! newsletter is published quarterly after each Technology Council meeting and is distributed to all chapter presidents and regional vice chairs (RVCs) for Chapter Technology Transfer.

Pyka, Andreas; Gilbert, Nigel; Ahrweiler, Petra (2007-10) Simulating Knowledge-Generation and Distribution Processes in Innovation Collaborations and Networks. Cybernetics & Systems. 667(27), 667-693

An agent-based simulation model representing a theory of the dynamic processes involved in innovation in modern knowledge-based industries is described. The agent-based approach allows the representation of heterogenous agents that have individual and varying stocks of knowledge. The simulation is able to model uncertainty, historical change, effect of failure on the agent population, and agent learning from experience, from individual research and from partners and collaborators. The aim of the simulation exercises is to show that the artificial innovation networks show certain characteristics they share with innovation networks in knowledge intensive industries and which are difficult to be integrated in traditional models of industrial economics.

Sawhney, H. (2007). Strategies for Increasing the Conceptual Yield of New Technologies Research. Communication Monographs. 74 (3), 395-401.

This article discusses the framework in which scholarly attention should be paid to mobile communication systems. The assertion is made that the focus has remained on the products and their diffusion instead of their cultural context, diffusion theory, and the societal changes that could be researched through their proliferation. The author suggests an increase in the conceptual yield of new technologies could be gained by studying technology clusters, context of use, parallels with old technologies, and other ways of expanding communication theories studies by looking beyond technological advances.

Shull, F. (2007). Who Needs Evidence, Anyway? IEEE Software. 24, 10-11.

The article offers information on the process of decision making relative to the development and acquisition of software. It is posed that many people make decisions in this area by considering what solutions have worked for other people, and that the software engineering community has examined how to conduct studies that offer evidence about techniques and methodologies which are involved in this field. Relative to this concern, Marvin Zelkowitz, Dolores Wallace, and David Binkley conducted a study in 1998 regarding software engineering technology transfer.

Tambunan, T, (2008). v. Knowledge, Technology, and Policy. 20 (4), 243-258.

It is evident everywhere that levels of productivity are higher in large enterprises (LEs) and foreign-owned enterprises than in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), partly because they have higher levels of technology capacity. Thus increasing the productivity of non-farm SMEs might be facilitated through improved knowledge or technology. This study shows that foreign direct investment (FDI) is an important but limited channel for technology transfer from foreign countries to Indonesia. A case study of Tegal metalworking industry presented in this study shows that the most important channels for the diffusion of knowledge among domestic non-farm SMEs include sub-contracting arrangements. This study also shows that government agencies are currently the largest providers of training and similar assistance. However, these programs are marred by a low level of coverage, a lack of effective evaluation and assessment, and a supply rather than a demand orientation

Wainwright, David W DS; Waring, Teresa S TW (2007-03) The application and adaptation of a diffusion of innovation framework for information systems research in NHS general medical practice. Journal of Information Technology. 44(15), 44-58

This paper proposes an adapted diffusion of innovation (DOI) framework that may be considered relevant and useful to researchers undertaking studies of information systems innovations in healthcare organizations. A particular focus concerns problems and issues associated with professional cultures and powerful organizational control structures. A review of four empirical DOI studies are undertaken to identify candidate frameworks for the retrospective analysis of a pilot study conducted across General Medical Practices based within a Primary Care Trust in the north east of England. A research approach, based on phenomenology, semi-structured interviews and template analysis is adopted in order to conduct and provide a rich analysis of the data. The findings are discussed using the modified DOI framework. Discussion and conclusions relate to the extended use of the DOI framework, its further development and how it may be used to understand how ICT innovation is politically constrained, perceived and motivated within healthcare environments.

XI, YOUMIN; ZHUANG, YOULONG; HUANG, W.; SHE, CONGGUO; ZHANG, ZHIPENG (2007-06) The quality assessment and content analysis of corporate websites in China: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making. 389(17), 389-405

This study evaluates 74 Chinese corporate websites by examining their contents and functions to understand the business objectives. It found that business objectives of these websites mainly focused on publicity, and very little on online sales. Firms in banking and construction industries develop the highest quality websites, while firms in public services and retailing are the laggards. Chinese websites are ease to use with consistent information. The article also compared the findings in China in this study with those in the United States, Australia, and Singapore in similar studies. It found that industry characteristics were similar among nations while more complicated website functions were more popular among the firms of developed countries. The findings will contribute to the research of e-business by confirming the existence of innovators and laggards of Web technology adoption in model given in E. M. Roger, Diffusion of Innovations (The Free Press, New York, 1962), and help managers understand current status of Chinese websites.

 
At 25 January, 2008 12:12, Anonymous Ben said...

Ben McDade
10 Bibliographic Links for Diffusion on New Communication Technologies

1. Bruun, H., & Hukkinen, J. (2003, February). Crossing Boundaries: An Integrative
Framework for Studying Technological Change. Social Studies of Science (Sage),
33(1), 95-116. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete
database.

Abstract
Ecological economics occasionally makes universal claims about how to understand and measure change in systems of human–environmental interaction. In terms of environmental policy, one of the most influential universal concepts that has come out of the ecological economics literature recently is ecological efficiency (or eco-efficiency). This article uses eco-efficiency as a vehicle to illustrate that universal indicators of human–environmental interaction are theoretically unfounded and practically problematic. Population ecology and neo-classical economics are identified as two theoretical approaches that have contributed to the emergence of universal concepts such as eco-efficiency. The limited applicability of the approaches is highlighted by putting them in comparative context with approaches that make less universal claims, namely, systems ecology and institutional economics. Investigating indicators of human–environmental interaction from disciplinary perspectives that are rarely found in indicator literature offers novel insights on what indicators are for and how they should be applied. The article concludes with a call for scale sensitive generalization in the development of future indicators.

2. Dutta, A., & Roy, R. (2003, February). ANTICIPATING INTERNET DIFFUSION.
Communications of the ACM, 46(2), 66-71. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from
Academic Search Complete database.

3. Erickson, M. (2007, June). Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies. European Journal of Communication, 22(2), 237-239. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The article reviews the book "Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies," Andrew Chadwick.

4. Grant, S. (1999, Summer). The Internationalizing Influences of New Communications Technologies. New Directions for Student Services, Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The development of new communications technologies poses new challenges and opportunities for student affairs professionals as their profession continues to internationalize.

5. Hategekimana, B., & Trant, M. (2002, December). Adoption and Diffusion of New
Technology in Agriculture: Genetically Modified Corn and Soybeans. Canadian
Journal of Agricultural Economics, 50(4), 357. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from
Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Analyzes the significance and application of new technology to agriculture. Influence of technological innovations on agricultural processes; Agricultural trends based on farm sizes; Application of new technology in genetic modifications of crops.

6. Indrekvam, S., & Hunskaar, S. (2003, October). Home electrical stimulation for
urinary incontinence: a study of the diffusion ofa new technology. Urology, 62,
24. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which physicians requested home electrical stimulation (ES) treatment for patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Home ES was requested by 429 general practitioners (GPs) and 147 gynecologists within 2 years (1992 to 1994) after the Norwegian National Insurance Service offered reimbursement for the procedure. For first-time requesters, cumulative plots of time to request were compared for GPs versus gynecologists. Characteristics of requesting GPs were compared with those of a randomly selected control sample of nonrequesting GPs, collected by postal questionnaire. A greater proportion of gynecologists than GPs prescribed home ES during the 2-year study period (42% vs 14%, P <0.001). Median time to request for ES was 5.8 months for gynecologists versus 8.6 months for GPs (P <0.01). A greater proportion of female GPs than male GPs requested the treatment (17% vs 13%, P <0.01). Sufficient information about and/or knowledge of treatment indications were claimed by 71% of requesting GPs versus 21% of controls (P <0.001). Altogether, 91% of requesters versus 62% of controls judged that home ES was effective or a good treatment alternative (P <0.001). Requesters (versus controls) prescribed more bladder training and estrogen for urge UI, more pelvic floor exercises and estrogen to treat stress UI, and more ES to treat both types of UI (all P <0.05). Gynecologists prescribed ES more often and earlier than GPs. Prescribers of ES were more proactive in treating UI in their practices than those who were not prescribers. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]

7. Lyon, D. (1987, August). New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest: comparative perspectives on policy and research (Book). Sociology, 21(3), 472-474. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest: Comparative Perspectives on Policy and Research," edited by Marjorie Ferguson.

8. Perkins, R., & Neumayer, E. (2005, December). The International Diffusion of
New Technologies: A Multitechnology Analysis of Latecomer Advantage and
Global Economic Integration. Annals of the Association of American
Geographers, 95(4), 789-808. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic
Search Complete database.

Abstract
The diffusion of modern, efficient technology has far-reaching consequences for the geography of economic activity, inequality, and environmental quality. This article examines two popular yet highly controversial claims about the conditions most favorable to the rapid spread of new technology. The first states that latecomer advantage allows developing countries to diffuse new technology faster than developed countries. The second claim, widely articulated by advocates of neoliberal policy reform, is that new technologies diffuse more rapidly where countries are “open” to international trade and investment. To investigate these claims we use event-history analysis to estimate the determinants of diffusion speed across a large panel of developed and developing countries for three very different technologies. These are: continuous steel casting, shuttleless textile weaving looms, and digital telephone mainlines. Our results broadly support both propositions. Countries that adopt new technology later or have a smaller existing capital stock—characteristic features of developing countries—diffuse new technology more rapidly than countries that adopt earlier or have more installed capacity—two characteristics of developed countries. Trade openness is also found to influence the rate of diffusion positively for all three technologies. Yet, consistent with recent empirical studies, we fail to find support for the idea that foreign direct investment (FDI) accelerates the diffusion of new technology in host economies. The article concludes by discussing the geographical implications of our findings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

9. Rethinking Rights and Regulations: institutional Responses to New communication Technologies. (2004, December). European Journal of Communication, Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "Rethinking Rights and Regulations: Institutional Responses to New Communication Technologies," edited by Lorrie Faith Cranor and Steven S. Wildman.

10. Sawhney, H. (2007, September). Strategies for Increasing the Conceptual Yield of New Technologies Research. Communication Monographs, 74(3), 395-401. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This article discusses the framework in which scholarly attention should be paid to mobile communication systems. The assertion is made that the focus has remained on the products and their diffusion instead of their cultural context, diffusion theory, and the societal changes that could be researched through their proliferation. The author suggests an increase in the conceptual yield of new technologies could be gained by studying technology clusters, context of use, parallels with old technologies, and other ways of expanding communication theories studies by looking beyond technological advances.


Five Bibliographic Links for Diffusion of Innovations
Ben Mcdade

Brown, L., & Cox, K. (1971, September). EMPIRICAL REGULARITIES IN THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 61(3), 551-559. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
Research on the diffusion of innovation has postulated three empirical regularities-the S-curve for diffusion in a temporal context, the neighborhood effect for diffusion in a spatial context, arid the hierarchy or short circuit effect for diffusion in the context of a central place system. This paper reviews the evidence for each regularity, considers the consistency of each, and presents an explanation for these regularities taken together that appears more useful for future research than previously posited explanations. Our paradigm focuses upon 1) the distinction between innovation diffusion agencies and adopters themselves, 2) the relationship between the marketing surface viewed by diffusion agencies and the resistance surface offered by potential adopters, and 3) the sequence of communication systems associated with different stages of the diffusion process. By focusing upon behavioral aspects of diffusion rather than upon rigidly defined structural aspects, the consistency of each regularity with others, and deviations from a given regularity for a particular situation, may be reconciled with theory. The empirical regularities are but one possible outcome of behavioral events associated with diffusion of innovation, and in future diffusion research more attention should be given to behavioral events and their characteristics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Crow, G. (2006, July). Diffusion of Innovation. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30(3), 236-242. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database
Abstract

The article explores the role of nurse leaders in creating organizational context for evidence-based practice. The major challenge to a leader's role is to successfully lead change. Some of the barriers to effective change include traditional top-down command and control structures and processes present in healthcare institutions. This article suggests that transitioning from traditional structures to structures that are more of a partnership between point-of-service staff and administrators is the foundation for creating an evidence-based practice culture.

Geibert, R. (2006, July). Using Diffusion of Innovation Concepts to Enhance Implementation of an Electronic Health Record to Support Evidence-based Practice. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30(3), 203-210. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
The article identifies the explosion of clinical data that are available and how difficult it is for clinicians to find answers to clinical questions. Electronic healthcare records (EHRs) are increasingly used to assist clinicians in this process; however, resistance to the implementation of technology-assisted care is not uncommon. The article reviews the diffusion of innovation research and provides the nurse manager with suggestions for applying these concepts to enhance the implementation of an EHR that can support evidence-based practice. Five characteristics of innovations, as perceived by individuals, are discussed as they help explain different rates of adoption. The innovation-decision process is studied as it relates to EHR implementations.

Wainwright, D., & Waring, T. (2007, March). The application and adaptation of a diffusion of innovation framework for information systems research in NHS general medical practice. Journal of Information Technology (Palgrave Macmillan), 22(1), 44-58. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
This paper proposes an adapted diffusion of innovation (DOI) framework that may be considered relevant and useful to researchers undertaking studies of information systems innovations in healthcare organizations. A particular focus concerns problems and issues associated with professional cultures and powerful organizational control structures. A review of four empirical DOI studies are undertaken to identify candidate frameworks for the retrospective analysis of a pilot study conducted across General Medical Practices based within a Primary Care Trust in the north east of England. A research approach, based on phenomenology, semi-structured interviews and template analysis is adopted in order to conduct and provide a rich analysis of the data. The findings are discussed using the modified DOI framework. Discussion and conclusions relate to the extended use of the DOI framework, its further development and how it may be used to understand how ICT innovation is politically constrained, perceived and motivated within healthcare environmentsJournal of Information Technology (2007) 22, 44–58. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jit.2000093 Published online 2 January 2007

Yano, E., Goldzweig, C., Canelo, I., & Washington, D. (2006, September). Diffusion of innovation in women’s health care delivery: The Department of Veterans Affairs’ adoption of women’s health clinics. Women's Health Issues, 16(5), 226-235. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
Background
In response to concerns about the availability and quality of women’s health services in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers in the early 1990s, Congress approved landmark legislation earmarking funds to enhance women’s health services. A portion of the appropriation was used to launch Comprehensive Women’s Health Centers as exemplars for the development of VA women’s health care throughout the system. We report on the diffusion and characteristics of VA women’s health clinics (WHCs) 10 years later.
Methods
In 2001, we surveyed the senior women’s health clinician at each VA medical center serving ≥400 women veterans (83% response rate) regarding their internal organizational characteristics in relation to factors associated with organizational innovation (centralization, complexity, formalization, interconnectedness, organizational slack, size). We evaluated the comparability of WHCs (n = 66) with characteristics of the original comprehensive women’s health centers (CWHCs; n = 8).
Results
Gender-specific service availability in WHCs was comparable to that of CWHCs with important exceptions in mental health, mammography and osteoporosis management. WHCs were less likely to have same-gender providers (p < .05), women’s health training programs (p < .01), separate women’s mental health clinics (p < .001), separate space (p < .05), or adequate privacy (p < .05); however, they were less likely to have experienced educational program closures (p < .001) and staffing losses (p < .05) compared to CWHCs.
Conclusions
Diffusion of comprehensive women’s health care is as yet incomplete. More research is needed to examine the quality of care associated with these models and to establish the business case for managers faced with small female patient caseloads.

 
At 25 January, 2008 13:32, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Britannica Online. Social Change: Diffusion of Innovations. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222921/social-change.

Some social changes result from the innovations that are adopted in a society. These can include technological inventions, new scientific knowledge, new beliefs, or a new fashion in the sphere of leisure. Diffusion is not automatic but selective; an innovation is adopted only by people who are motivated to do so. Furthermore, the innovation must be compatible with important aspects of the culture.

Cain, M.(2002). Diffusion of Innovation in Health Care. Health and Technology.
Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.chcf.org/topics/view.cfm?itemID=19772.

Trying to change the pace at which new ideas about health care spread through the system is a priority of health care professionals. Such changes easily have major impacts on cost, quality, and patient satisfaction. This report describes the ten critical dynamics that govern how new medical and information technologies are diffused in the health care industry. It is practical guide for changing the pace of adoption and includes examples and quick tips.


Crystal, S.(1995). The diffusion of innovation in AIDS treatment: zidovudine use in two
New Jersey cohorts. Health Services. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4149/is_n4_v30/ai_17635052.
Zidovudine (Retrovir or azidothymidine [AZT]) was approved in March 1987 as the first antiviral therapy for HIV disease, when a clinical thai of ZDV versus placebo in patients with advanced disease was terminated early based on evidence of improved survival (Fischl, Richman, Grieco, et al. 1987). ZDV rapidly became recommended standard treatment in AIDS and other advanced HIV disease, although whether it is beneficial to initiate therapy at an earlier, symptom-free stage of illness is still unclear (Concorde Coordinating Committee 1994). Until approval of didanosine (ddI) in late 1991, ZDV was the only approved antiviral therapy for HIV disease (Hirsch and D'Aquila 1993; Albert 1991).




Freedman, J.(2002). Clinical Computing: The diffusion of Innovations Into Psychiatric
Practice. Psychiatric Services, Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/12/1539.

Page no longer exist.

Greenbalgh, T.(2004). Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic
Review and Recommendations. The Milbank Quarterly. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.milbank.org/quarterly/8204feat.html.

Page no longer exist.

Kalkowski, M.(2000). Diffusion of Innovation: Technology in the High School
Journalism Classroom. High School Journalism Classroom Technology.
Retrieved January 16th , 2008, from http://marian.creighton.edu/~mascu/TECHNOLOGY.html.
The purpose of this study was to explore the diffusion of technological innovation stages present in high school journalism classrooms across the state of Nebraska and to describe the high school journalism teacher’s perception of technology in the classroom. After a review of relevant literature on technology in the classroom, in the workplace and in the journalism profession, the researcher developed a self-response questionnaire sent to 100 members of the Nebraska High School Press Association. A response rate of 55 percent allowed analysis at a descriptive and basic interpretative level. The results of this limited sampling indicate that high school journalism programs have access to many technological innovations but that availability does not equal usage or automatic incorporation in to the journalism curriculum. A demographic description was developed on the average Nebraska high school journalism adviser and many of the advisers’ perceptions of technology were identified through both scaled items and open-ended responses. Analysis of these responses suggests that some Nebraska high school journalism classrooms are more likely to have certain technologies available and likely to have journalism teachers who perceive technology in certain ways. This study serves to motivate educators to challenge their current stage of technological innovation and analyze their own perceptions of technology.
Schrage, M.(2004). Last Word: for better and for worse, today’s technological
innovations spread faster than ever. Technology Review. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/13987/.
Simply put: innovation isn't what innovators do; it's what customers, clients, and people adopt. Innovation isn't about crafting brilliant ideas that change minds; it's about the distribution of usable artifacts that change behavior. Innovators -- their optimistic arrogance notwithstanding -- don't change the world; the users of their innovations do. That's not a subtle distinction.



Stoller, F.(1994). The Diffusion of Innovations in Intensive ESL Programs. Oxford
Journals. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/3/300.

The process of successful innovation diffusion in English language teaching (ELT) programs is poorly understood. The research reported here contributes to the small but growing ELT innovation literature, shedding new light on components of the diffusion process in one ELT context: the US intensive English program (IEP). The study examines the facilitative and inhibitory roles of 13 frequently cited perceived attributes of innovations (e.g. complexity, originality, feasibility).


Surry, D.(1997). Diffusion Theory and Instruction Technology. Instructional Technology
Research Online. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwitr/docs/diffusion/.
This paper discusses how the theories of innovation diffusion have been incorporated into the field of instructional technology. The paper begins with a brief description of general diffusion theory that includes mention of the four most commonly discussed diffusion theories. Following the discussion of general diffusion theory, the author describes how general diffusion theories have been used to form diffusion theories specific to the field of instructional technology. The paper states that the two màjor categories of IT-related diffusion theory are Systemic Change Theories and Product Utilization Theories. Examples of each category are provided. The paper identifies and describes two opposing philosophical views of technology: Determinism and Instrumentalism. The author uses the two philosophies of technology to create two subcategories of IT-related diffusion theory: Developer Based Theories and Adopter Based Theories. Examples of both subcategories are provided.The author contends that Developer àBased Theories are flawed in that they overstate the role of technological superiority in the diffusion process.
Woodell, J.(2002). Faculty Development and the Diffusion of Innovations. Campus Technology. Retrieved January 16th,2008, from http://campustechnology.com.
This paper discusses how the theories of innovation diffusion have been incorporated into the field of instructional technology. The paper begins with a brief description of general diffusion theory that includes mention of the four most commonly discussed diffusion theories. Following the discussion of general diffusion theory, the author describes how general diffusion theories have been used to form diffusion theories specific to the field of instructional technology. The paper states that the two màjor categories of IT-related diffusion theory are Systemic Change Theories and Product Utilization Theories. Examples of each category are provided. The paper identifies and describes two opposing philosophical views of technology: Determinism and Instrumentalism. The author uses the two philosophies of technology to create two subcategories of IT-related diffusion theory: Developer Based Theories and Adopter Based Theories. Examples of both subcategories are provided. The author contends that Developer àBased Theories are flawed in that they overstate the role of technological superiority in the diffusion process.

 
At 25 January, 2008 14:33, Anonymous Benjamin Ackerley and Kalie Watch said...

References

Åkesson, M. & Eriksson, C. I. (2007). The Vision of Ubiquitous Media Services: How Close Are We? Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer.
The high penetration of mobile devices implies that we are closing up to the vision of ubiquitous media environments. This paper reports from a broad survey about barriers, use patterns, and motivations for using mobile media services. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of mobile service adoption process by studying users in different phases of the adoption process. The findings imply that mobile services are still not adopted and ubiquitously ingrained in use patterns. There is still a long way to go.

Alkemade, F., & Castaldi, C. (2005). Strategies for the Diffusion of Innovations on Social Networks. Computational Economics, Vol. 25, No. 1-2, 3-23.
We investigate the spread of innovations on a social network. The network consists of agents that are exposed to the introduction of a new product. Consumers decide whether or not to buy the product based on their own preferences and the decisions of their neighbors in the social network. We use and extend concepts from the literature on epidemics and herd behavior to study this problem. The central question of this paper is whether firms can learn about the network structure and consumer characteristics when only limited information is available, and use this information to evolve a successful directed-advertising strategy. In order to do so, we extend existing models to allow for heterogeneous agents and both positive and negative externalities. The firm can learn a directed-advertising strategy that takes into account both the topology of the social consumer network and the characteristics of the consumer. Such directed-advertising strategies outperform random advertising.

Ascroft, Joseph; Chege, Fred Wa & Rolling, Niels. (1976). The Diffusion of Innovations and the Issue of the Equity in Rural Development. Communication Research, Volume 3, Issue 2. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://crx.sagepub.com/
Diffusion strategies, as currently practiced by most change agencies, often lead to increased inequity and therefore might be used as guides for devising revised strategies which avoid what currently practiced strategies predict. This view implies that those who seek more equitable development programs should not carry out further surveys of current diffusion practice, but rather experiment to develop and test new alternatives to such usual diffusion programs. One such field experiment in rural Kenya shows that diffusion programs can reach successfully the non-innovative "laggards." Not only did this project obtain 100% adoption among those reached directly, but it also had an immediate three-to-one diffusion effect for each farmer directly reached.

Backer, T.E. & Rogers, E.M. (1998). Diffusions of Innovations Theory and Work-Site AIDS Programs. Journal of Health Communication, Volume 3, Issue 1. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://www.ingentaconnect.com/
Four case studies of the adoption of work-site AIDS programs are investigated, two of which were modifications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Business Responds to AIDS (BRTA) program. AIDS work-site programs were mainly initiated by the four study companies as a result of the efforts of a champion (defined as an individual who gains attention and resources for an issue in a system) or the occurrence of a tragic event, such as a company employee contracting AIDS. The BRTA program is an innovation that has not yet reached critical mass, which is the point after which further rates of adoption occur rapidly in a self-sustaining process.

Baldridge, J. V. & Burnham, Robert A. (1975). Organizational Innovation: Individual, Organizational, and Environmental Impacts. Administrative Science Quarterly, Volume 20, Issue 2. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://links.jstor.org/
This article argues that research on diffusion of innovation should shift from individuals to organizational structure and environmental factors. The results of two research projects on organizational change are presented. The analysis indicates three findings. (1) Individual characteristics, such as sex, age, and personal attitudes, do not seem to be important determinants of innovative behavior among people in complex organizations. However, administrative positions and roles do seem to have an impact on the involvement of an individual in the innovation process. (2) Structural characteristics of the organization, such as size and complexity, strongly affect the organization's innovative behavior. (3) Environmental input from the community and other organizations is a major determinant of an organization's innovation behavior.

Bøving, K. B., & Bødker, K. (2004). Where is the innovation?: the adoption of virtual workspaces. Networked information technologies: diffusion and adoption, 39-52.
This paper reports from a case study of the introduction of a web-based groupware application - Lotus QuickPlaceTM - in a large European financial organization. Our study challenges the commonly held assumption in DOI research that "all use is equal", implied when DOI is used to study the adoption of technologies. The underlying problem is that in order to understand the diffusion of groupware, we need to distinguish between two separate innovations. The first is directly related to the DOI "innovation-decision process" - centered on the technology as the innovation. The second innovation is more related to how the technology is put to use. This has consequences for devising strategies for the diffusion, and we suggest a strategy for diffusing virtual workspaces, which combines the DOI framework's one-way communication with the two-way communication of a participative approach.

Brown, Lawrence A. & Cox, Kevin R. (1971). Empirical Regularities in the Diffusion of Innovation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 61, Issue 3. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://links.jstor.org/
Research on the diffusion of innovation has postulated three empirical regularities-the S-curve for diffusion in a temporal context, the neighborhood effect for diffusion in a spatial context, and the hierarchy or short circuit effect for diffusion in the context of a central place system. This paper reviews the evidence for each regularity, considers the consistency of each, and presents an explanation for these regularities taken together that appears more useful for future research than previously posited explanations. Our paradigm focuses upon 1) the distinction between innovation diffusion agencies and adopters themselves, 2) the relationship between the marketing surface viewed by diffusion agencies and the resistance surface offered by potential adopters, and 3) the sequence of communication systems associated with different stages of the diffusion process. By focusing upon behavioral aspects of diffusion rather than upon rigidly defined structural aspects, the consistency of each regularity with others, and deviations from a given regularity for a particular situation, may be reconciled with theory. The empirical regularities are but one possible outcome of behavioral events associated with diffusion of innovation, and in future diffusion research more attention should be given to behavioral events and their characteristics.

Deroian, Frederic. (2002). Formation of social networks and diffusion of innovations. Research Policy, Volume 31, Issue 5. Retrieved January 12, 2008, from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/
Some innovations need delay to diffuse, others often fail. The formation of social networks is a possible explanation. Considering a population of potential adopters of a technology, we set-up a model composed of interacting agents. Interaction is conceived as influence effects and the network of interpersonal influences is learning step-by-step. The gradual formation of the social network leads, after a period of latency, to a collective evaluation of the innovation.

Draper, P & Pearcey, P. (1996). Using the diffusion of innovation model to influence practice: a case study. PubMed, Volume 23, Issue 4. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
There continue to be suggestions within the nursing literature that research findings are not being utilized in clinical practice. The reasons for this are well documented. However, less emphasis is given to ways to facilitate utilization. It seemed possible that non-utilization could be due not only to lack of knowledge, but also to the method of implementing change towards research-based practice. The "top-down', authoritarian, approach to dissemination of information within the NHS may have been a block to research use. Could staff be motivated to consider research-based change through use of a different approach? An "action research' approach seemed a possible way to attempt to facilitate research-based practice. Within this study one ward was used with all staff as the participants. The staff identified the area to be studied (devising a protocol for preoperative information-giving). The instruments used were semi-structured interviews and informal discussions and field notes. Rogers' diffusion of innovation model was used to organize data collection and to analyze results. Although the results may not be generalizable, the use of this model provides a useful framework for others interested in an alternative approach to achieving research-based practice.

Hays, Scott P. (1996). Influences of Reinvention During the Diffusion of Innovations. Political Research Quarterly, Volume 49, Issue 3. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://prq.sagepub.com/
This study considers how states change policy innovations as they diffuse. This process, known as reinvention, has been the subject of recent innovation diffusion research (Mooney and Lee 1995; Glick and Hays 1991). This paper examines the role of controversy in structuring the nature of reinvention, creating a more fully specified model of the causes of reinvention. This research is a comparative analysis of the evolution of provisions of three policy innovations: child abuse reporting laws, crime victim compensation law, and public campaign funding laws. The data show that vary ing levels of controversy affect the nature of policy reinvention and that reinvention results from a combination of social learning, political characteristics, and contextual factors.

Lehman-Wilzig, S., & Cohen-Avigdor, N. (2004). The natural life cycle of new media evolution: Inter-media struggle for survival in the internet age. New Media & Society, Vol. 6, No. 6, 707-730.
This article analyzes the evolution of the internet, with special emphasis on its impact on older media in their struggle to survive. The analysis is based on a 6-stage, natural life cycle model of new media evolution, comprising birth (technical invention), penetration, growth, maturity, self-defense, and adaptation, convergence or obsolescence. Our universal model melds several elements of previous theories and analyses from disparate fields such as media history, marketing, technological diffusion and convergence, while adding a few new aspects as well. The model’s three contributions lie in expanding the scope–quantitatively and qualitatively–of new media’s development stages (beyond the three or four stages noted by others); emphasizing the interaction and struggle between old and new media; and analyzing ‘functional-life after appliance-death’ of media transformed/co-opted into something old/new. Applying this model to the internet enables us to better understand its future evolution and the survival chances of older mass media.

Markus, M. L. (1987). Toward a “Critical Mass” Theory of Interactive Media. Communication Research, Vol. 14, No. 5, 491-511.
This article proposes a "critical mass" explanation for the diffusion of interactive media, such as telephone, paper mail systems, electronic mail, voice messaging, or computer conferencing, within communities. Interactive media have two characteristics not shared by many other innovations. First, widespread usage creates universal access, a public good that individuals cannot be prevented from enjoying even if they have not contributed to it. Second, use of interactive media entails reciprocal interdependence, in which earlier users are influenced by later users as well as vice versa. Consequently, interactive media are extremely vulnerable to start-up problems and discontinuance. Traditional explanations of diffusion of innovations do not accommodate these two properties of interactive media. The influence of these two properties on the probability and extent of interactive media diffusion within communities is the focus of the critical mass theory developed in this article.

Mukoyama, T. (2004). Diffusion and Innovation of New Technologies under Skill Heterogeneity. Journal of Economic Growth, Vol. 9, No. 4, 451-479.
This article presents a model of innovation and diffusion of machines which embody a new technology. Users of the machines are heterogenous in their skill level. Skilled machine-users adopt new machines first, while unskilled users wait until machines become more user-friendly and reliable. The improvement of machines is the engine of diffusion, and it is carried out by the monopolist machine producer. The speed of diffusion is affected by the skill distribution in the economy. At any point in time, the machine producer can innovate a new generation of machines. The timing of innovation is also influenced by the skill distribution.

Oster, Sharon M. & Quigley, John M. Regulatory Barriers to the Diffusion of Innovation: Some Evidence from Building Codes. The Bell Journal of Economics, Volume 8, Issue 2. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://links.jstor.org/
Previous studies, including the reports of the Douglas and Kaiser Commission, have suggested that outmoded local regulation of residential construction has impeded technical progress in the industry. In this paper, we try to identify the determinants of differences across communities in these regulations. The permissibility of four particular innovations in a cross section of jurisdictions in 1970 and the timing of these innovations are explained by attributes of local firms, labor unions, building officials, and housing demand. Our results suggest that the educational level of the chief building official, the extent of unionization, and the relative size of house building firms in an area affect the diffusion of innovations in residential construction.

Robinson, J. E. (2007). A Study of Social Media Marketing in North Carolina Special Libraries. (Master’s Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2007). School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
This study describes a Web questionnaire survey of special librarians in North Carolina who are members of the Special Libraries Association. The survey, based on the theory of the diffusion of innovations, was conducted to determine special librarians’ familiarity and knowledge of social media and its possibilities for use in the marketing of special libraries. This study also aimed to determine special librarians’ professional development activities and their impact on the adoption of social media marketing techniques. The results of this study support classical diffusion theory. This non-random sample showed user perceptions of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity and observability correlated, in most cases, with the adoption of social media marketing techniques.

Taylor, M., & Perry, D. C. (2005). Diffusion of traditional and new media tactics in crisis communication. Public Relations Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, 209-217.
The Internet is emerging as an important tool for organizations to communicate with journalists and publics. This article reports the results of a five point-in-time study of organizational use of the Internet in crisis communication. Through the lens of Rogers’ [Rogers, E. (1962/1995). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press] diffusion of innovations research, the data suggest that about half of the organizations experiencing a national crisis are integrating the Internet into their response. To illustrate this diffusion, the article provides exemplars of innovative Internet response during crisis.

Valente, Thomas W. (1996). Social network thresholds in the diffusion of innovation. ScienceDirect, Volume18, Issue 1. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from
http://www.sciencedirect.com/
Threshold models have been postulated as one explanation for the success or failure of collective action and the diffusion of innovations. The present paper creates a social network threshold model of the diffusion of innovations based on the Ryan and Gross (1943) adopter categories: (1) early adopters; (2) early majority; (3) late majority; (4) laggards. This new model uses social networks as a basis for adopter categorization, instead of solely relying on the system-level analysis used previously. The present paper argues that these four adopter categories can be created either with respect to the entire social system, or with respect to an individual's personal network. This dual typology is used to analyze three diffusion datasets to show how external influence and opinion leadership channel the diffusion of innovations. Network thresholds can be used (1) to vary the definition of behavioral contagion, (2) to predict the pattern of diffusion of innovations, and (3) to identify opinion leaders and followers in order to understand the two-step flow hypothesis better.

Waldman, Lee. (1985). The Diffusion of innovations in hospitals. Some econometric considerations. PubMed, Volume 4, Issue 4. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
Empirical studies of the diffusion of innovations have not addressed adequately econometric problems that are characteristic of such analyses. Reanalysis of data for five innovations using an estimator with desirable statistical properties results in a considerably revised estimate of the impact of prospective reimbursement on diffusion.

Wareham, J., Levy, A., & Shi, W. (2004). Wireless diffusion and mobile computing: implications for the digital divide. Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 28, No. 5-6, 439-457.
Despite significant improvements in nominal levels, severe gaps of digital inclusion still exist in the American economy. This paper argues that, for certain groups, migration towards mobile computing and digital inclusion may transpire from 2G voice centric mobile telecommunications to data centric mobile computing devices. Accordingly, this analysis employs a large data set to investigate what socio-economic factors are determinant for the diffusion of mobile telecommunications; how these findings can be extended to help close the digital divide; and how these findings can inform policy making concerning the digital divide.

Wei, R. (2006). Lifestyles and new media: adoption and use of wireless communication technologies in China. New Media & Society, Vol. 8, No. 6, 991-1008.
This study examines the relationships between the lifestyles of urban Chinese consumers and the adoption and use of pagers and mobile phones. Based on a probability sample of 7094 respondents from China’s seven most prosperous cities, results show that the respondents identified as yuppies tended to integrate pagers and mobile phones into their conspicuous, westernized and socially active lifestyle. Adopting a pager and mobile phone is found to be a means to achieve social differentiation and identity among this lifestyle segment. The study demonstrates the utility of segmentation analysis in delineating complex relationships among demographics, lifestyles and adoption and use of new media.

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At 25 January, 2008 14:44, Anonymous Travis Fowler said...

10 Bibliographic Links for Diffusion on New Communication Technologies

1. Bruun, H., & Hukkinen, J. (2003, February). Crossing Boundaries: An Integrative
Framework for Studying Technological Change. Social Studies of Science (Sage),
33(1), 95-116. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete
database.

Abstract
Ecological economics occasionally makes universal claims about how to understand and measure change in systems of human–environmental interaction. In terms of environmental policy, one of the most influential universal concepts that has come out of the ecological economics literature recently is ecological efficiency (or eco-efficiency). This article uses eco-efficiency as a vehicle to illustrate that universal indicators of human–environmental interaction are theoretically unfounded and practically problematic. Population ecology and neo-classical economics are identified as two theoretical approaches that have contributed to the emergence of universal concepts such as eco-efficiency. The limited applicability of the approaches is highlighted by putting them in comparative context with approaches that make less universal claims, namely, systems ecology and institutional economics. Investigating indicators of human–environmental interaction from disciplinary perspectives that are rarely found in indicator literature offers novel insights on what indicators are for and how they should be applied. The article concludes with a call for scale sensitive generalization in the development of future indicators.

2. Dutta, A., & Roy, R. (2003, February). ANTICIPATING INTERNET DIFFUSION.
Communications of the ACM, 46(2), 66-71. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from
Academic Search Complete database.

3. Erickson, M. (2007, June). Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies. European Journal of Communication, 22(2), 237-239. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The article reviews the book "Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies," Andrew Chadwick.

4. Grant, S. (1999, Summer). The Internationalizing Influences of New Communications Technologies. New Directions for Student Services, Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The development of new communications technologies poses new challenges and opportunities for student affairs professionals as their profession continues to internationalize.

5. Hategekimana, B., & Trant, M. (2002, December). Adoption and Diffusion of New
Technology in Agriculture: Genetically Modified Corn and Soybeans. Canadian
Journal of Agricultural Economics, 50(4), 357. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from
Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Analyzes the significance and application of new technology to agriculture. Influence of technological innovations on agricultural processes; Agricultural trends based on farm sizes; Application of new technology in genetic modifications of crops.

6. Indrekvam, S., & Hunskaar, S. (2003, October). Home electrical stimulation for
urinary incontinence: a study of the diffusion ofa new technology. Urology, 62,
24. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which physicians requested home electrical stimulation (ES) treatment for patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Home ES was requested by 429 general practitioners (GPs) and 147 gynecologists within 2 years (1992 to 1994) after the Norwegian National Insurance Service offered reimbursement for the procedure. For first-time requesters, cumulative plots of time to request were compared for GPs versus gynecologists. Characteristics of requesting GPs were compared with those of a randomly selected control sample of nonrequesting GPs, collected by postal questionnaire. A greater proportion of gynecologists than GPs prescribed home ES during the 2-year study period (42% vs 14%, P <0.001). Median time to request for ES was 5.8 months for gynecologists versus 8.6 months for GPs (P <0.01). A greater proportion of female GPs than male GPs requested the treatment (17% vs 13%, P <0.01). Sufficient information about and/or knowledge of treatment indications were claimed by 71% of requesting GPs versus 21% of controls (P <0.001). Altogether, 91% of requesters versus 62% of controls judged that home ES was effective or a good treatment alternative (P <0.001). Requesters (versus controls) prescribed more bladder training and estrogen for urge UI, more pelvic floor exercises and estrogen to treat stress UI, and more ES to treat both types of UI (all P <0.05). Gynecologists prescribed ES more often and earlier than GPs. Prescribers of ES were more proactive in treating UI in their practices than those who were not prescribers. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]

7. Lyon, D. (1987, August). New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest: comparative perspectives on policy and research (Book). Sociology, 21(3), 472-474. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest: Comparative Perspectives on Policy and Research," edited by Marjorie Ferguson.

8. Perkins, R., & Neumayer, E. (2005, December). The International Diffusion of
New Technologies: A Multitechnology Analysis of Latecomer Advantage and
Global Economic Integration. Annals of the Association of American
Geographers, 95(4), 789-808. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic
Search Complete database.

Abstract
The diffusion of modern, efficient technology has far-reaching consequences for the geography of economic activity, inequality, and environmental quality. This article examines two popular yet highly controversial claims about the conditions most favorable to the rapid spread of new technology. The first states that latecomer advantage allows developing countries to diffuse new technology faster than developed countries. The second claim, widely articulated by advocates of neoliberal policy reform, is that new technologies diffuse more rapidly where countries are “open” to international trade and investment. To investigate these claims we use event-history analysis to estimate the determinants of diffusion speed across a large panel of developed and developing countries for three very different technologies. These are: continuous steel casting, shuttleless textile weaving looms, and digital telephone mainlines. Our results broadly support both propositions. Countries that adopt new technology later or have a smaller existing capital stock—characteristic features of developing countries—diffuse new technology more rapidly than countries that adopt earlier or have more installed capacity—two characteristics of developed countries. Trade openness is also found to influence the rate of diffusion positively for all three technologies. Yet, consistent with recent empirical studies, we fail to find support for the idea that foreign direct investment (FDI) accelerates the diffusion of new technology in host economies. The article concludes by discussing the geographical implications of our findings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

9. Rethinking Rights and Regulations: institutional Responses to New communication Technologies. (2004, December). European Journal of Communication, Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "Rethinking Rights and Regulations: Institutional Responses to New Communication Technologies," edited by Lorrie Faith Cranor and Steven S. Wildman.

10. Sawhney, H. (2007, September). Strategies for Increasing the Conceptual Yield of New Technologies Research. Communication Monographs, 74(3), 395-401. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This article discusses the framework in which scholarly attention should be paid to mobile communication systems. The assertion is made that the focus has remained on the products and their diffusion instead of their cultural context, diffusion theory, and the societal changes that could be researched through their proliferation. The author suggests an increase in the conceptual yield of new technologies could be gained by studying technology clusters, context of use, parallels with old technologies, and other ways of expanding communication theories studies by looking beyond technological advances.

Five Links for Diffusion of Innovation
Travis Fowler

Fisek, M. (1971, April). Diffusion Dynamics: A Review and Revision of the Quantitative Theory of the Spatial Diffusion of Innovation (Book). American Sociological Review, 36(2), 339-340. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "Diffusion Dynamics: A Review and Revision of the Quantitative Theory of the Spatial Diffusion of Innovation ," by Lawrence Brown

Galvin, P. (1999). Product modularity, information structures and the diffusion of innovation. International Journal of Technology Management, 17(5), 467. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This paper explores how the product design information structure affects innovation types and levels of innovation diffusion. By taking a narrower definition of information structures than previous usages, the author seeks to clarify how specific dimensions of this type of knowledge link with a range of innovation variables in a modular product setting. It is proposed that the type of product innovation that occurs is determined by the rate of change in the information structure, and that the level of control exerted over the information structure determines the potential for the diffusion of the innovation.

Schrage, M. (2004, December). Innovation Diffusion. Technology Review, 107(10), 18-18. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Abstract
In the December issue of Technology Review (MIT's magazine of innovation) was the last column of Michael Schrage. Michael is co-director of the MIT Media Lab's E-Markets Initiative and a senior adviser to MIT¹s Security Studies Program.
As he puts it, he started the monthly Technology Review column to "explore the real guts and viscera of the innovation process - not the polite entrepreneurial fictions about how brilliant ideas ultimatly charm the reluctant marketplaces". After three years, Michael's conclusion is simple, but bright : "innovation isn't what innovators do ; it's what customers and clients adopt".

Although Michael does not mention it, I cannot help but think that the internet fits exactly into this approach. What a difference between the DARPA's original purpose (to secure exchange of information through a computer network) and today's World Wide Web !
On the failure side, a good example is the WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) ? In 1997, when Unwired Planet, Motorola, Ericsson and Nokia creates the WAP forum, they envisioned millions of users shortly after the introduction. Mobile manufacturers and telecom companies pourred billions to grow WAP services as a mass market. But WAP services were poorly designed, and they never really took off.  It took another three years to fix all the problems and see successful WAP mobile services.
But Michael Schrage's approach is not valid for human-friendly innovations only. There's a dark side to innovation, and Michael is unfortunatly right when he claims that "the ability of tiny groups of fanatics to kill large groups of innocents has grown by orders of magnitude over the last fifty years".
Schrage leaves us with a wise conclusion : "The diffusion of innovation is about the diffusion of choice - both good and bad. The more choices you have, the more your values matter".

Skogan, W., & Hartnett, S. (2005, December). The Diffusion of Information Technology in Policing. Police Practice & Research, 6(5), 401-417. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This study examines the diffusion of innovation among municipal police departments in northeastern Illinois. The opportunity to adopt an innovation arose when the Chicago Police Department (CPD) opened access to elements of its new centralized Data Warehouse to other criminal justice agencies. There is a long history of research on the diffusion of innovation, and a number of recent projects have applied this work to policing. Like innovation studies generally, this paper presents the shape of the diffusion curve that describes the pace of adoption, and it examines factors associated with adoption and the extent to which the innovation was actually used. Adoption and extent of utilization proved to be largely independent processes. Involvement in cosmopolitan networks, experience with using databases for law enforcement, and the human capital capacities of the organizations influenced the adoption decision, while organizational resources and experience in using the system drove the level of actual use. The rapid growth of system utilization was apparently due to three factors: the active role played by the ‘evangelist’ representing the host department; the fact that access to the system was free; and because it primarily empowered detectives—who enjoy a privileged position in policing—and did not challenge the traditional mission and organization of participating agencies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]



Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581-629. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts.

 
At 25 January, 2008 14:46, Anonymous Corey Aitken said...

10 Bibliographic Links for Diffusion on New Communication Technologies

1. Bruun, H., & Hukkinen, J. (2003, February). Crossing Boundaries: An Integrative
Framework for Studying Technological Change. Social Studies of Science (Sage),
33(1), 95-116. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete
database.

Abstract
Ecological economics occasionally makes universal claims about how to understand and measure change in systems of human–environmental interaction. In terms of environmental policy, one of the most influential universal concepts that has come out of the ecological economics literature recently is ecological efficiency (or eco-efficiency). This article uses eco-efficiency as a vehicle to illustrate that universal indicators of human–environmental interaction are theoretically unfounded and practically problematic. Population ecology and neo-classical economics are identified as two theoretical approaches that have contributed to the emergence of universal concepts such as eco-efficiency. The limited applicability of the approaches is highlighted by putting them in comparative context with approaches that make less universal claims, namely, systems ecology and institutional economics. Investigating indicators of human–environmental interaction from disciplinary perspectives that are rarely found in indicator literature offers novel insights on what indicators are for and how they should be applied. The article concludes with a call for scale sensitive generalization in the development of future indicators.

2. Dutta, A., & Roy, R. (2003, February). ANTICIPATING INTERNET DIFFUSION.
Communications of the ACM, 46(2), 66-71. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from
Academic Search Complete database.

3. Erickson, M. (2007, June). Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies. European Journal of Communication, 22(2), 237-239. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The article reviews the book "Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies," Andrew Chadwick.

4. Grant, S. (1999, Summer). The Internationalizing Influences of New Communications Technologies. New Directions for Student Services, Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The development of new communications technologies poses new challenges and opportunities for student affairs professionals as their profession continues to internationalize.

5. Hategekimana, B., & Trant, M. (2002, December). Adoption and Diffusion of New
Technology in Agriculture: Genetically Modified Corn and Soybeans. Canadian
Journal of Agricultural Economics, 50(4), 357. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from
Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Analyzes the significance and application of new technology to agriculture. Influence of technological innovations on agricultural processes; Agricultural trends based on farm sizes; Application of new technology in genetic modifications of crops.

6. Indrekvam, S., & Hunskaar, S. (2003, October). Home electrical stimulation for
urinary incontinence: a study of the diffusion ofa new technology. Urology, 62,
24. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which physicians requested home electrical stimulation (ES) treatment for patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Home ES was requested by 429 general practitioners (GPs) and 147 gynecologists within 2 years (1992 to 1994) after the Norwegian National Insurance Service offered reimbursement for the procedure. For first-time requesters, cumulative plots of time to request were compared for GPs versus gynecologists. Characteristics of requesting GPs were compared with those of a randomly selected control sample of nonrequesting GPs, collected by postal questionnaire. A greater proportion of gynecologists than GPs prescribed home ES during the 2-year study period (42% vs 14%, P <0.001). Median time to request for ES was 5.8 months for gynecologists versus 8.6 months for GPs (P <0.01). A greater proportion of female GPs than male GPs requested the treatment (17% vs 13%, P <0.01). Sufficient information about and/or knowledge of treatment indications were claimed by 71% of requesting GPs versus 21% of controls (P <0.001). Altogether, 91% of requesters versus 62% of controls judged that home ES was effective or a good treatment alternative (P <0.001). Requesters (versus controls) prescribed more bladder training and estrogen for urge UI, more pelvic floor exercises and estrogen to treat stress UI, and more ES to treat both types of UI (all P <0.05). Gynecologists prescribed ES more often and earlier than GPs. Prescribers of ES were more proactive in treating UI in their practices than those who were not prescribers. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]

7. Lyon, D. (1987, August). New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest: comparative perspectives on policy and research (Book). Sociology, 21(3), 472-474. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "New Communication Technologies and the Public Interest: Comparative Perspectives on Policy and Research," edited by Marjorie Ferguson.

8. Perkins, R., & Neumayer, E. (2005, December). The International Diffusion of
New Technologies: A Multitechnology Analysis of Latecomer Advantage and
Global Economic Integration. Annals of the Association of American
Geographers, 95(4), 789-808. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic
Search Complete database.

Abstract
The diffusion of modern, efficient technology has far-reaching consequences for the geography of economic activity, inequality, and environmental quality. This article examines two popular yet highly controversial claims about the conditions most favorable to the rapid spread of new technology. The first states that latecomer advantage allows developing countries to diffuse new technology faster than developed countries. The second claim, widely articulated by advocates of neoliberal policy reform, is that new technologies diffuse more rapidly where countries are “open” to international trade and investment. To investigate these claims we use event-history analysis to estimate the determinants of diffusion speed across a large panel of developed and developing countries for three very different technologies. These are: continuous steel casting, shuttleless textile weaving looms, and digital telephone mainlines. Our results broadly support both propositions. Countries that adopt new technology later or have a smaller existing capital stock—characteristic features of developing countries—diffuse new technology more rapidly than countries that adopt earlier or have more installed capacity—two characteristics of developed countries. Trade openness is also found to influence the rate of diffusion positively for all three technologies. Yet, consistent with recent empirical studies, we fail to find support for the idea that foreign direct investment (FDI) accelerates the diffusion of new technology in host economies. The article concludes by discussing the geographical implications of our findings. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

9. Rethinking Rights and Regulations: institutional Responses to New communication Technologies. (2004, December). European Journal of Communication, Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "Rethinking Rights and Regulations: Institutional Responses to New Communication Technologies," edited by Lorrie Faith Cranor and Steven S. Wildman.

10. Sawhney, H. (2007, September). Strategies for Increasing the Conceptual Yield of New Technologies Research. Communication Monographs, 74(3), 395-401. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This article discusses the framework in which scholarly attention should be paid to mobile communication systems. The assertion is made that the focus has remained on the products and their diffusion instead of their cultural context, diffusion theory, and the societal changes that could be researched through their proliferation. The author suggests an increase in the conceptual yield of new technologies could be gained by studying technology clusters, context of use, parallels with old technologies, and other ways of expanding communication theories studies by looking beyond technological advances.

Five Links for Diffusion of Innovation
Travis Fowler

Fisek, M. (1971, April). Diffusion Dynamics: A Review and Revision of the Quantitative Theory of the Spatial Diffusion of Innovation (Book). American Sociological Review, 36(2), 339-340. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Reviews the book "Diffusion Dynamics: A Review and Revision of the Quantitative Theory of the Spatial Diffusion of Innovation ," by Lawrence Brown

Galvin, P. (1999). Product modularity, information structures and the diffusion of innovation. International Journal of Technology Management, 17(5), 467. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This paper explores how the product design information structure affects innovation types and levels of innovation diffusion. By taking a narrower definition of information structures than previous usages, the author seeks to clarify how specific dimensions of this type of knowledge link with a range of innovation variables in a modular product setting. It is proposed that the type of product innovation that occurs is determined by the rate of change in the information structure, and that the level of control exerted over the information structure determines the potential for the diffusion of the innovation.

Schrage, M. (2004, December). Innovation Diffusion. Technology Review, 107(10), 18-18. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
Abstract
In the December issue of Technology Review (MIT's magazine of innovation) was the last column of Michael Schrage. Michael is co-director of the MIT Media Lab's E-Markets Initiative and a senior adviser to MIT¹s Security Studies Program.
As he puts it, he started the monthly Technology Review column to "explore the real guts and viscera of the innovation process - not the polite entrepreneurial fictions about how brilliant ideas ultimatly charm the reluctant marketplaces". After three years, Michael's conclusion is simple, but bright : "innovation isn't what innovators do ; it's what customers and clients adopt".

Although Michael does not mention it, I cannot help but think that the internet fits exactly into this approach. What a difference between the DARPA's original purpose (to secure exchange of information through a computer network) and today's World Wide Web !
On the failure side, a good example is the WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) ? In 1997, when Unwired Planet, Motorola, Ericsson and Nokia creates the WAP forum, they envisioned millions of users shortly after the introduction. Mobile manufacturers and telecom companies pourred billions to grow WAP services as a mass market. But WAP services were poorly designed, and they never really took off.  It took another three years to fix all the problems and see successful WAP mobile services.
But Michael Schrage's approach is not valid for human-friendly innovations only. There's a dark side to innovation, and Michael is unfortunatly right when he claims that "the ability of tiny groups of fanatics to kill large groups of innocents has grown by orders of magnitude over the last fifty years".
Schrage leaves us with a wise conclusion : "The diffusion of innovation is about the diffusion of choice - both good and bad. The more choices you have, the more your values matter".

Skogan, W., & Hartnett, S. (2005, December). The Diffusion of Information Technology in Policing. Police Practice & Research, 6(5), 401-417. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This study examines the diffusion of innovation among municipal police departments in northeastern Illinois. The opportunity to adopt an innovation arose when the Chicago Police Department (CPD) opened access to elements of its new centralized Data Warehouse to other criminal justice agencies. There is a long history of research on the diffusion of innovation, and a number of recent projects have applied this work to policing. Like innovation studies generally, this paper presents the shape of the diffusion curve that describes the pace of adoption, and it examines factors associated with adoption and the extent to which the innovation was actually used. Adoption and extent of utilization proved to be largely independent processes. Involvement in cosmopolitan networks, experience with using databases for law enforcement, and the human capital capacities of the organizations influenced the adoption decision, while organizational resources and experience in using the system drove the level of actual use. The rapid growth of system utilization was apparently due to three factors: the active role played by the ‘evangelist’ representing the host department; the fact that access to the system was free; and because it primarily empowered detectives—who enjoy a privileged position in policing—and did not challenge the traditional mission and organization of participating agencies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]



Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581-629. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Abstract
This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts.


Five Bibliographic Links for Diffusion of Innovations
Ben Mcdade

Brown, L., & Cox, K. (1971, September). EMPIRICAL REGULARITIES IN THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 61(3), 551-559. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
Research on the diffusion of innovation has postulated three empirical regularities-the S-curve for diffusion in a temporal context, the neighborhood effect for diffusion in a spatial context, arid the hierarchy or short circuit effect for diffusion in the context of a central place system. This paper reviews the evidence for each regularity, considers the consistency of each, and presents an explanation for these regularities taken together that appears more useful for future research than previously posited explanations. Our paradigm focuses upon 1) the distinction between innovation diffusion agencies and adopters themselves, 2) the relationship between the marketing surface viewed by diffusion agencies and the resistance surface offered by potential adopters, and 3) the sequence of communication systems associated with different stages of the diffusion process. By focusing upon behavioral aspects of diffusion rather than upon rigidly defined structural aspects, the consistency of each regularity with others, and deviations from a given regularity for a particular situation, may be reconciled with theory. The empirical regularities are but one possible outcome of behavioral events associated with diffusion of innovation, and in future diffusion research more attention should be given to behavioral events and their characteristics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Yano, E., Goldzweig, C., Canelo, I., & Washington, D. (2006, September). Diffusion of innovation in women’s health care delivery: The Department of Veterans Affairs’ adoption of women’s health clinics. Women's Health Issues, 16(5), 226-235. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
Background
In response to concerns about the availability and quality of women’s health services in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers in the early 1990s, Congress approved landmark legislation earmarking funds to enhance women’s health services. A portion of the appropriation was used to launch Comprehensive Women’s Health Centers as exemplars for the development of VA women’s health care throughout the system. We report on the diffusion and characteristics of VA women’s health clinics (WHCs) 10 years later.
Methods
In 2001, we surveyed the senior women’s health clinician at each VA medical center serving ≥400 women veterans (83% response rate) regarding their internal organizational characteristics in relation to factors associated with organizational innovation (centralization, complexity, formalization, interconnectedness, organizational slack, size). We evaluated the comparability of WHCs (n = 66) with characteristics of the original comprehensive women’s health centers (CWHCs; n = 8).
Results
Gender-specific service availability in WHCs was comparable to that of CWHCs with important exceptions in mental health, mammography and osteoporosis management. WHCs were less likely to have same-gender providers (p < .05), women’s health training programs (p < .01), separate women’s mental health clinics (p < .001), separate space (p < .05), or adequate privacy (p < .05); however, they were less likely to have experienced educational program closures (p < .001) and staffing losses (p < .05) compared to CWHCs.
Conclusions
Diffusion of comprehensive women’s health care is as yet incomplete. More research is needed to examine the quality of care associated with these models and to establish the business case for managers faced with small female patient caseloads.
Geibert, R. (2006, July). Using Diffusion of Innovation Concepts to Enhance Implementation of an Electronic Health Record to Support Evidence-based Practice. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30(3), 203-210. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
The article identifies the explosion of clinical data that are available and how difficult it is for clinicians to find answers to clinical questions. Electronic healthcare records (EHRs) are increasingly used to assist clinicians in this process; however, resistance to the implementation of technology-assisted care is not uncommon. The article reviews the diffusion of innovation research and provides the nurse manager with suggestions for applying these concepts to enhance the implementation of an EHR that can support evidence-based practice. Five characteristics of innovations, as perceived by individuals, are discussed as they help explain different rates of adoption. The innovation-decision process is studied as it relates to EHR implementations.

Crow, G. (2006, July). Diffusion of Innovation. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30(3), 236-242. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database
Abstract

The article explores the role of nurse leaders in creating organizational context for evidence-based practice. The major challenge to a leader's role is to successfully lead change. Some of the barriers to effective change include traditional top-down command and control structures and processes present in healthcare institutions. This article suggests that transitioning from traditional structures to structures that are more of a partnership between point-of-service staff and administrators is the foundation for creating an evidence-based practice culture.


Wainwright, D., & Waring, T. (2007, March). The application and adaptation of a diffusion of innovation framework for information systems research in NHS general medical practice. Journal of Information Technology (Palgrave Macmillan), 22(1), 44-58. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Abstract
This paper proposes an adapted diffusion of innovation (DOI) framework that may be considered relevant and useful to researchers undertaking studies of information systems innovations in healthcare organizations. A particular focus concerns problems and issues associated with professional cultures and powerful organizational control structures. A review of four empirical DOI studies are undertaken to identify candidate frameworks for the retrospective analysis of a pilot study conducted across General Medical Practices based within a Primary Care Trust in the north east of England. A research approach, based on phenomenology, semi-structured interviews and template analysis is adopted in order to conduct and provide a rich analysis of the data. The findings are discussed using the modified DOI framework. Discussion and conclusions relate to the extended use of the DOI framework, its further development and how it may be used to understand how ICT innovation is politically constrained, perceived and motivated within healthcare environmentsJournal of Information Technology (2007) 22, 44–58. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jit.2000093 Published online 2 January 2007


5 Links for the diffusion of innovation
Corey Aitken

Brown, L., & Cox, K. (1971, September). EMPIRICAL REGULARITIES IN THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 61(3), 551-559. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Research on the diffusion of innovation has postulated three empirical regularities-the S-curve for diffusion in a temporal context, the neighborhood effect for diffusion in a spatial context, arid the hierarchy or short circuit effect for diffusion in the context of a central place system. This paper reviews the evidence for each regularity, considers the consistency of each, and presents an explanation for these regularities taken together that appears more useful for future research than previously posited explanations. Our paradigm focuses upon 1) the distinction between innovation diffusion agencies and adopters themselves, 2) the relationship between the marketing surface viewed by diffusion agencies and the resistance surface offered by potential adopters, and 3) the sequence of communication systems associated with different stages of the diffusion process. By focusing upon behavioral aspects of diffusion rather than upon rigidly defined structural aspects, the consistency of each regularity with others, and deviations from a given regularity for a particular situation, may be reconciled with theory. The empirical regularities are but one possible outcome of behavioral events associated with diffusion of innovation, and in future diffusion research more attention should be given to behavioral events and their characteristics.

Fisek, M. (1971, April). Diffusion Dynamics: A Review and Revision of the Quantitative Theory of the Spatial Diffusion of Innovation (Book). American Sociological Review, 36(2), 339-340. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Reviews the book "Diffusion Dynamics: A Review and Revision of the Quantitative Theory of the Spatial Diffusion of Innovation ," by Lawrence Brown

Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581-629. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Napierkowski, C., & Parsons, R. (1995, May). Diffusion of innovation: Implementing changes in school counselor roles and functions. School Counselor, 42(5), 364. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Describes a diffusion of innovation model which serves as a resource for counselors seeking to redefine their role and functions in response to the institutional resistance they often experience. Principles of diffusion of innovation; Cultural compatibility of innovation; Value of the change agents to the system.

Galvin, P. (1999). Product modularity, information structures and the diffusion of innovation. International Journal of Technology Management, 17(5), 467. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.

Presents a study which explored how the product design information structure affects innovation types and levels of innovation diffusion. Details on product modularity and information structures; Relationship between information structure control and rate of innovation; Details on a case study concerning the bicycle industry.

 
At 25 January, 2008 16:16, Anonymous John Pope said...

This is the second attempt at posting my bibliography. I posted as Anonymous the first time by mistake.

1. Britannica Online. Social Change: Diffusion of Innovations. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222921/social-change.

Some social changes result from the innovations that are adopted in a society. These can include technological inventions, new scientific knowledge, new beliefs, or a new fashion in the sphere of leisure. Diffusion is not automatic but selective; an innovation is adopted only by people who are motivated to do so. Furthermore, the innovation must be compatible with important aspects of the culture.

2. Cain, M.(2002). Diffusion of Innovation in Health Care. Health and Technology.
Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.chcf.org/topics/view.cfm?itemID=19772.

Trying to change the pace at which new ideas about health care spread through the system is a priority of health care professionals. Such changes easily have major impacts on cost, quality, and patient satisfaction. This report describes the ten critical dynamics that govern how new medical and information technologies are diffused in the health care industry. It is practical guide for changing the pace of adoption and includes examples and quick tips.


3. Crystal, S.(1995). The diffusion of innovation in AIDS treatment: zidovudine use in two
New Jersey cohorts. Health Services. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4149/is_n4_v30/ai_17635052.

Zidovudine (Retrovir or azidothymidine [AZT]) was approved in March 1987 as the first antiviral therapy for HIV disease, when a clinical thai of ZDV versus placebo in patients with advanced disease was terminated early based on evidence of improved survival (Fischl, Richman, Grieco, et al. 1987). ZDV rapidly became recommended standard treatment in AIDS and other advanced HIV disease, although whether it is beneficial to initiate therapy at an earlier, symptom-free stage of illness is still unclear (Concorde Coordinating Committee 1994). Until approval of didanosine (ddI) in late 1991, ZDV was the only approved antiviral therapy for HIV disease (Hirsch and D'Aquila 1993; Albert 1991).

4. Freedman, J.(2002). Clinical Computing: The diffusion of Innovations Into Psychiatric
Practice. Psychiatric Services, Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/12/1539.

Page no longer exist.

5. Greenbalgh, T.(2004). Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic
Review and Recommendations. The Milbank Quarterly. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.milbank.org/quarterly/8204feat.html.

Page no longer exist.

6. Kalkowski, M.(2000). Diffusion of Innovation: Technology in the High School
Journalism Classroom. High School Journalism Classroom Technology.
Retrieved January 16th , 2008, from http://marian.creighton.edu/~mascu/TECHNOLOGY.html.

The purpose of this study was to explore the diffusion of technological innovation stages present in high school journalism classrooms across the state of Nebraska and to describe the high school journalism teacher’s perception of technology in the classroom. After a review of relevant literature on technology in the classroom, in the workplace and in the journalism profession, the researcher developed a self-response questionnaire sent to 100 members of the Nebraska High School Press Association. A response rate of 55 percent allowed analysis at a descriptive and basic interpretative level. The results of this limited sampling indicate that high school journalism programs have access to many technological innovations but that availability does not equal usage or automatic incorporation in to the journalism curriculum. A demographic description was developed on the average Nebraska high school journalism adviser and many of the advisers’ perceptions of technology were identified through both scaled items and open-ended responses. Analysis of these responses suggests that some Nebraska high school journalism classrooms are more likely to have certain technologies available and likely to have journalism teachers who perceive technology in certain ways. This study serves to motivate educators to challenge their current stage of technological innovation and analyze their own perceptions of technology.

7. Schrage, M.(2004). Last Word: for better and for worse, today’s technological
innovations spread faster than ever. Technology Review. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/13987/.

Simply put: innovation isn't what innovators do; it's what customers, clients, and people adopt. Innovation isn't about crafting brilliant ideas that change minds; it's about the distribution of usable artifacts that change behavior. Innovators -- their optimistic arrogance notwithstanding -- don't change the world; the users of their innovations do. That's not a subtle distinction.



8. Stoller, F.(1994). The Diffusion of Innovations in Intensive ESL Programs. Oxford
Journals. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/3/300.

The process of successful innovation diffusion in English language teaching (ELT) programs is poorly understood. The research reported here contributes to the small but growing ELT innovation literature, shedding new light on components of the diffusion process in one ELT context: the US intensive English program (IEP). The study examines the facilitative and inhibitory roles of 13 frequently cited perceived attributes of innovations (e.g. complexity, originality, feasibility).


9. Surry, D.(1997). Diffusion Theory and Instruction Technology. Instructional
Technology Research Online. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwitr/docs/diffusion/.

This paper discusses how the theories of innovation diffusion have been incorporated into the field of instructional technology. The paper begins with a brief description of general diffusion theory that includes mention of the four most commonly discussed diffusion theories. Following the discussion of general diffusion theory, the author describes how general diffusion theories have been used to form diffusion theories specific to the field of instructional technology. The paper states that the two màjor categories of IT-related diffusion theory are Systemic Change Theories and Product Utilization Theories. Examples of each category are provided. The paper identifies and describes two opposing philosophical views of technology: Determinism and Instrumentalism. The author uses the two philosophies of technology to create two subcategories of IT-related diffusion theory: Developer Based Theories and Adopter Based Theories. Examples of both subcategories are provided.The author contends that Developer àBased Theories are flawed in that they overstate the role of technological superiority in the diffusion process.

10. Woodell, J.(2002). Faculty Development and the Diffusion of Innovations. Campus Technology. Retrieved January 16th,2008, from http://campustechnology.com.

This paper discusses how the theories of innovation diffusion have been incorporated into the field of instructional technology. The paper begins with a brief description of general diffusion theory that includes mention of the four most commonly discussed diffusion theories. Following the discussion of general diffusion theory, the author describes how general diffusion theories have been used to form diffusion theories specific to the field of instructional technology. The paper states that the two màjor categories of IT-related diffusion theory are Systemic Change Theories and Product Utilization Theories. Examples of each category are provided. The paper identifies and describes two opposing philosophical views of technology: Determinism and Instrumentalism. The author uses the two philosophies of technology to create two subcategories of IT-related diffusion theory: Developer Based Theories and Adopter Based Theories. Examples of both subcategories are provided. The author contends that Developer àBased Theories are flawed in that they overstate the role of technological superiority in the diffusion process.

 
At 25 January, 2008 22:17, Anonymous Ransom McArthur said...

Ascroft, Joseph; Chege, Fred Wa & Rolling, Niels. (1976). The Diffusion of Innovations and the Issue of the Equity in Rural Development. Communication Research, Volume 3, Issue 2. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from http://crx.sagepub.com/
Diffusion strategies, as currently practiced by most change agencies, often lead to increased inequity and therefore might be used as guides for devising revised strategies which avoid what currently practiced strategies predict. This view implies that those who seek more equitable development programs should not carry out further surveys of current diffusion practice, but rather experiment to develop and test new alternatives to such usual diffusion programs. One such field experiment in rural Kenya shows that diffusion programs can reach successfully the non-innovative "laggards." Not only did this project obtain 100% adoption among those reached directly, but it also had an immediate three-to-one diffusion effect for each farmer directly reached.

Boczkowski, P. (2004, September). The Mutual Shaping of Technology and Society in Videotex Newspapers: Beyond the Diffusion and Social Shaping Perspectives. Information Society, 20(4), 255-267. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
This article argues that a mutual shaping lens enables a more encompassing account of the joint processes of technological and social change in new media than the diffusion of innovations and social shaping of technology perspectives. Drawing from recent work in sociology and history of technology, organization studies, social informatics, and computer-supported cooperative work, this article suggests that the shaping and diffusion of media artifacts are so intimately tied that they should be seen as the two sides of the same innovation coin. Using examples from the history of videotex newspapers in the United States, the analysis shows that actors simultaneously pursued interdependent technological and social transformations, that this was an ongoing process in which partial outcomes in the technological domain influenced social events at a later phase—and vice versa—and that such process was influenced by historical developments.

Bruun, H., & Hukkinen, J. (2003, February). Crossing Boundaries: An Integrative Framework for Studying Technological Change. Social Studies of Science (Sage), 33(1), 95-116. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Ecological economics occasionally makes universal claims about how to understand and measure change in systems of human–environmental interaction. In terms of environmental policy, one of the most influential universal concepts that has come out of the ecological economics literature recently is ecological efficiency (or eco-efficiency). This article uses eco-efficiency as a vehicle to illustrate that universal indicators of human–environmental interaction are theoretically unfounded and practically problematic. Population ecology and neo-classical economics are identified as two theoretical approaches that have contributed to the emergence of universal concepts such as eco-efficiency. The limited applicability of the approaches is highlighted by putting them in comparative context with approaches that make less universal claims, namely, systems ecology and institutional economics. Investigating indicators of human–environmental interaction from disciplinary perspectives that are rarely found in indicator literature offers novel insights on what indicators are for and how they should be applied. The article concludes with a call for scale sensitive generalization in the development of future indicators.

Crow, G. (2006, July). Diffusion of Innovation. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30(3), 236-242. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database
The article explores the role of nurse leaders in creating organizational context for evidence-based practice. The major challenge to a leader's role is to successfully lead change. Some of the barriers to effective change include traditional top-down command and control structures and processes present in healthcare institutions. This article suggests that transitioning from traditional structures to structures that are more of a partnership between point-of-service staff and administrators is the foundation for creating an evidence-based practice culture.

Hategekimana, B., & Trant, M. (2002, December). Adoption and Diffusion of New
Technology in Agriculture: Genetically Modified Corn and Soybeans. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 50(4), 357. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Analyzes the significance and application of new technology to agriculture. Influence of technological innovations on agricultural processes; Agricultural trends based on farm sizes; Application of new technology in genetic modifications of crops.

Karlgaard, R. (2007, November 26). How Fast Can You Learn?. Forbes, 180(11), 31-31. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
An editorial is presented discussing the adoption of new technologies. The author states that individuals rather than organizations drive the adoption of new technologies in the workplace, such as the BlackBerry hand held computer, wireless Internet, wikis and online social networks. Businesses should rely on the mass of people using the Internet to tap into the wisdom of crowds.

Sawhney, H. (2007, September). Strategies for Increasing the Conceptual Yield of New Technologies Research. Communication Monographs, 74(3), 395-401. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
This article discusses the framework in which scholarly attention should be paid to mobile communication systems. The assertion is made that the focus has remained on the products and their diffusion instead of their cultural context, diffusion theory, and the societal changes that could be researched through their proliferation. The author suggests an increase in the conceptual yield of new technologies could be gained by studying technology clusters, context of use, parallels with old technologies, and other ways of expanding communication theories studies by looking beyond technological advances.

Stoller, F.(1994). The Diffusion of Innovations in Intensive ESL Programs. Oxford
Journals. Retrieved January 16th, 2008, from http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/3/300.
The process of successful innovation diffusion in English language teaching (ELT) programs is poorly understood. The research reported here contributes to the small but growing ELT innovation literature, shedding new light on components of the diffusion process in one ELT context: the US intensive English program (IEP). The study examines the facilitative and inhibitory roles of 13 frequently cited perceived attributes of innovations (e.g. complexity, originality, feasibility).

Trelease, R. (2007, April). Diffusion of innovations: New media and lessons from the iPod. FASEB Journal, 21(5), A1-A1. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Diffusion of innovations (DOI), adoption of new technologies, involves processes that have been extensively studied by behavioral scientists. Anatomists can use DOI theory and principles to inform their assessments of potentially useful new technology and to enhance the development, management, and use of novel anatomical information resources. DOI theory has procedurally described the most important process variables affecting adoption: the nature of the innovation, the recipient social system, diffusing communications channels, and time. Innovations have hardware and socially embedded software attributes that influence diffusion, including relative advantage (over existing technologies), compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. A communications channel (e.g., the Web) serves as the medium for observability, distribution, and user trials, and for information influencing users' innovation-decision processes leading to adoption. Social systems (e.g., student classes) include homophilic individuals (sharing similar interests and characteristics) and the heterophilic (with differing characteristics) who influence diffusion rates. After a decade of pioneering new multimedia teaching resources, anatomists can make use of established advantages in designs that appeal to media-sophisticated "digital native" students who grew up with Web-based communications.

Vishwanath, A., & Golohaber, G. (2003, December). An examination of the factors contributing to adoption decisions among late-diffused technology products. New Media & Society, 5(4), 547-572. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
According to diffusion theory, consumer beliefs or perceptions of innovation attributes, along with external socioeconomic and media exposures, influence the decision to adopt an innovation. To examine the relative influence of beliefs, attitudes, and external variables, the current study synthesizes perspectives from the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and diffusion theory, and presents an integrated model of consumer adoption. The article reports the results of a survey investigating the measurement model in predicting potential adoption by late adopters of cellular phones. The model confirms the importance of attitudes towards potential adoption. Also significant are the influence of media ownership on perceptions of advantage, observability; and compatibility of the innovation. Media use and change agent contacts significantly influence perceptions of complexity of the innovation. Age, income and occupation were the sociodemographic variables that indirectly influenced adoption intention.

 
At 29 January, 2008 00:28, Anonymous Justin Davidson and Kristin Gilbert said...

Diffusion of New Communication Technologies: Bibliography

Blackmen, Allen. "The Economics of Technology Diffusion:." Climate Issues 1.5 (1997): 1-10.

Recent efforts to forge some consensus on the role that developing countries should play in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions have focused attention on climate friendly technologies (CFTs). Developing countries are expected to supersede industrialized countries as the leading source of greenhouse gas emissions in the next thirty years. Yet their ability and willingness to contribute to abatement efforts is constrained by limited financial resources, weak regulatory institutions, and the perception that they should not have to bear the costs of mitigating a problem primarily created by industrialized countries. CFTs are seen by many as a means of surmounting these obstacles.


Carley, K. (1995). Communication Technologies and Their Effect on Cultural Homogeneity, Consensus, and the Diffusion of New Ideas. Sociological Perspectives, 38(4), 547-571. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0731-1214(199524)38%3A4%3C547%3ACTATEO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4.

A view of communication technologies as creating artificial agents and affecting the information-processing capabilities of agents is forwarded. The constructural theory is adapted to account for agents varying in their information-processing capabilities and, hence, to account for technology. Given this theoretical modification, the constructural model is used to examine the impact of different communication technologies and sociocultural landscapes on the rate at which information diffuses and the time it takes for the society to reach cultural homogeneity and consensus. The findings suggest that as the available communication technologies change, the role of the sociocultural landscape in effecting social change varies. Paradoxically, this research suggests that mass-communication technologies that enable greater competition among messages and greater message complexity will enable faster information diffusion than will those technologies that inhibit competition and message complexity.

Costello, Gabriel, and Brian Donnellan. "The diffusion of WOZ: expanding the topology of IS innovations." Journal of Information Technolog 22 (2007): 79-86.

The growth and diffusion of self-service technology (SST) over the last decade has resulted in an increasing number of business and government transactions being completed without human assistance. One innovation in this area, the speech-enabled business system, is characterized by complex implementations that bring together language-processing technologies, applications development, and end-user psychology. A resulting secondary innovation, the Wizard-of-OZ (WOZ) experiment is a valuable technique for simulating and building human-machine prototypes to ensure successful deployment of the completed service. The objective of the paper is to examine these innovations in relation to the changing business landscape; the technology and innovation literature, and the population of likely adopters. The review is carried out by placing the authors' former experience as practitioners within current theoretical research frameworks. The result is a number of suggestions relating to both IT technology research and IT innovation research. Firstly, it proposes the simplification and diffusion of the WOZ methodology to support the growth in demand for automated e-business transactions that is mindful of human and ethical challenges. Secondly, the paper argues that because SST and business extends the traditional boundaries of the customer service function, it now needs to be incorporated into Swanson's tri-core innovation typology. The paper concludes by presenting the suggested reorientation of information systems research that incorporates an outward facing perceptive as a conceptual model.


Doyle, Yvonne , and R.H.M. Mcneilly . "THE DIFFUSION OF NEW MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR OF THE U.K. HEALTH CARE SYSTEM." Cambridge Journals 15 (1999): 619-628.

Eleven percent of the U.K. population holds private health care insurance, and £2.2 billion are spent annually in the acute sector of private health care. Although isolated from policy discussions about new medical technology in the National Health Service, the private sector encounters these interventions regularly. During 18 months in one company, a new medical technology was encountered on average every week; 59 leading edge technologies were submitted for authorization (18 on multiple occasions). There are certain constraints on purchasers of health care in the private sector in dealing with new technology; these include fragmentation of the sector, differing rationalities within companies about limitations on eligibility of new procedures while competing for business, the role and expertise of the medical adviser, and demands of articulate customers. A proactive approach by the private sector to these challenges is hampered by its independence. Poor communication between the public and private sectors, and the lack of a more inclusive approach to policy centrally, undermine the rational diffusion and use of new medical technology in the U.K. health care system.


Fichman, R. (1992, December 15). Information technology diffusion: a review of empirical research. Thirteenth National Conference on Information Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Convention Center, Dallas.

This is the text of a lecture given by Roger Fichman at the National Conference on Information Systems in 1992. Fichman discussed how far the diffusion of innovations had come since the 1960s and 1970s. However, looking back on the lecture a little over 15 years later, it is amazing how outdated what Fichman says is.

Freeman, C., Soete, L., & Efendioglu, U. (1995). Diffusion and the employment effects of information and communication technology . International Labour Review, 4. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=HT7dg1SqBF1h7l1XvhLdqqhFhzPr0TpJTgnYg3nLgLthkLdTTCbL!150466661?docId=5001656353.

Ever since Ricardo's famous remarks in 1821 and the ensuing debate, economists have recognized the two-edged nature of technical change: that it both destroys old jobs and creates new ones. In general, economists have argued that the job creation effects have, in the long run, outstripped the job destruction effects, albeit accompanied by a steady reduction in working hours throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. However, nobody has claimed that such "compensation" is automatic, painless or instantaneous. As Ricardo pointed out, the new jobs may not match the old ones with respect either to skill or to location. Where the mismatch is severe and/or prolonged, economists speak of "structural unemployment" and the problems of "structural adjustment". Though the precise borderline between "structural" and the more usual "frictional" unemployment is not always easy to define, the existence of some fairly severe problems of structural unemployment from the 1970s to the 1990s is now universally recognized. In fact, it has become obvious from the rapid increase in, and presently high rates of, "long-term" unemployment or male "non-employment" in most developed countries

Garrison, Bruce. "How newspaper reporters use the Web to gather news." Newspaper Research Journal 1 (2003): 1-7.

Like other users at information-oriented businesses, news media uses of online technologies such as the World Wide Web and Internet have grown rapidly. At least one media critic has boldly labeled the Internet as the future for journalism. (1) Another scholar argued that the roles and nature of work of journalists are changing with the introduction of new online technologies. (2) Most professional news organizations had some form of Web or Internet presence at the beginning of this decade. While some news organizations use their sites for promotion, community relations or electronic commerce, many news organizations use the sites as extensions of their traditional news missions. (3) Use of the Web as a newsgathering resource has also grown rapidly since public awareness and commercial use--including that by news organizations--of the Internet and Web began rapid expansion. (4)
New media--in the form of the Internet and the Web--have had a revolutionary impact on journalism. (5) It is changing the role the journalist has served as an intermediary. It offers a broad range of new technologies with which to deliver messages and is creating its own form of journalism. The current technologies of new media make newsgathering and production more efficient, faster and cost-effective. These technologies also enhance producer creativity and encourage new approaches to old tasks. (6) Internet2, the latest generation of network computing, is thought to have an even more significant impact on news reporting and content delivery. (7)


Gruber, H., & Verboven, F. (2001). The diffusion of mobile telecommunications services in the European Union . European Economic Review, 45(3), 577-588. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V64-42C07X4-B&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=fa5b6d9d5f992af71e058a524ae12767.

We study the technological and regulatory determinants of the diffusion of mobile telecommunications services in the European Union, using a logistic model of diffusion. We find that the transition from the analogue to the digital technology during the early 1990s, and the corresponding increase in spectrum capacity, had a major impact on the diffusion of mobile telecommunications. Countries which granted first licenses at later points in time show a significant but slow catching-up effect, implying international convergence only by around 2006. The impact of introducing competition has also been significant, during both the analogue and the digital period, though the effect was smaller than the technology effect.


Haynes , Deborah , Mike Mandel, and Rita Roballard . "Curriculum Revolution: The Infusion and Diffusion of New Media." JSTOR 31.3 (1998): 187-193.

The authors raise questions and present options about how art education must change to more effectively help students meet the challenges of life with and beyond the computer screen. The thesis is simple: in the age of electronic media, artists need much more than training in the technologies of the "image world" in which we live. Students must become media philosophers, trained to reflect on the characters of electronic and other media and educated in the philosophical disciplines of epistemology, ontology and axiology. The article is organized around specific conceptual questions and discusses five proposed courses to aid students in addressing complicated questions raised by electronic media.


Houseman, Jon. "Infusion, not Diffusion, a Strategy for Incorporating Information Technology into Higher Education." Journal of Distance Education 1 (1997): 1-9.

To date information technology has not been widely adopted in higher education. Although I mention a variety of different reasons for why this is the case in this article, I will focus on my own experiences as both a faculty member and an information technology center co-coordinator. I believe that as a result of a number of changes on our campus, our faculty is more willing to consider information technology in their courses. I also provide some suggestions for faculty development strategies.

Jinqiu, Zhao, Hao Xiaoming, and Indrajit Banerjee. "The Diffusion of the Internet and Rural Development." Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 12.3 (2006): 101-122.

This study explores the applicability of the diffusion of innovations theory to Internet development in rural China by examining Internet diffusion and usage patterns in two rural areas of China's Gansu Province. Its ethnographic research design allowed the researchers to interact with the rural people under study and obtain first-hand data on their adoption and usage of the Internet. The results show that in the context of rural China, where the local economy and infrastructure can hardly sustain such an advanced technology as the internet, the diffusion and usage of the internet are determined not much by the will of individuals, but by the change agency. As the weakest social class in terms of their share and control of social resources, Chinese farmers as individuals do not play an important role in the adoption of the Internet, which tends to be the result of organizational initiatives.

Mahler, A., & Rogers, E. (1999). The diffusion of interactive communication innovations and the critical mass: the adoption of telecommunications services by German banks*. Telecommunications Policy, 22(10-11), 721-740. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VCC-3Y4C4XP-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=32cc4d4ed337a5306aa21461c0fe075c.

Interactive innovations are distinctive in that their adoption depends on the perceived number of others who have already adopted the innovation. Thus their rate of adoption does not take off in the familiar “S” shape until a critical mass of adopters has been reached. Data on the adoption of 12 telecommunications services by 392 German banks are used to explore our theoretical perspective on the role of the critical mass in the diffusion of interactive innovations. The most important obstacle to the adoption of new telecommunications services by banks is a low degree of diffusion (which suggests the general importance of the critical mass). These obstacles do not differ for the innovators and other adopter categories. The importance of direct network externalities in influencing the rate of diffusion of new telecommunications services should be determined for each new service, rather than assumed to always exist.



Maitland, C. (1999). Global diffusion of interactive networks: The impact of culture . AI & SOCIETY, 13(4`), 341-356. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://www.springerlink.com/content/t00238v037737117/.

The Internet and other interactive networks are diffusing across the globe at rates that vary from country to country. Typically, economic and market structure variables are used to explain these differences. The addition of culture to these variables will provide a more robust understanding of the differences in Internet and interactive network diffusion. Existing analyses that identify culture as a predictor of diffusion do not adequately specify the dimensions of culture and their impacts.
This paper presents a set of propositions to be used in analyses of the impact of culture on the diffusion of interactive networks. The propositions were developed using cultural constructs presented by Hofstede (1991), Herbig (1994) and Hall and Hall (1987). Diffusion of innovations theory and critical mass theory provide the theoretical base. The development of the propositions resulted from a close examination of the theories for relationships mediated by culture. The resulting propositions use cultural variables in relationships established by the theories. It is hoped that the propositions will serve as a starting point for future research in the area of cultural influences on the diffusion of interactive networks.


Nilakanta, S., & Scamell, R. (1990). The Effect of Information Sources and Communication Channels on the Diffusion of Innovation in a Data Base Development Environment . Management Science, 36(1), 24-40. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0025-1909(199001)36%3A1%3C24%3ATEOISA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D.

Increasing importance of emerging information technology, especially the data base component, has prompted the examination of the process of diffusion of innovations in the context of data base system development. This paper (1) examines the extent to which information sources and communication channels facilitate the diffusion of data base design tools and techniques, (2) studies how different information sources and communication channels influence diffusion and (3) assesses whether data base design tools and techniques applicable to the different stages of system development are diffused at different rates. In facilitating the diffusion of data base design tools and techniques, organizational resources such as information sources, communication channels and a technical support function are found to influence only certain classes of these innovations.

Robertson, T., & Gatignon, H. (1986). Competitive Effects on Technology Diffusion. Journal of Marketing, 50(3), 1-12. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2429(198607)50%3A3%3C1%3ACEOTD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E.

This article takes as its central concern the diffusion of high technology innovation among business organizations. A set of propositions is developed that focuses on the competitive factors influencing diffusion. The article suggests how the supply-side competitive environment and the adopter industry competitive environment both affect diffusion of new technologies. The article seeks to extend the current behavioral paradigm for studying innovation diffusion by incorporating competitive factors as explanatory variables.

Rush, Howard , and John Bessant. "The Diffusion of Manufacturing Technology." Diffusion of New Technologies 1 (1990): 1-2.

This study examines several factors, which act as significant predictors of successful intra-firm advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) diffusion. Our findings suggest that the following factors positively impact the diffusion process: previously successful AMT implementations, advanced manufacturing centers, AMT workshops, informal networks, simultaneous R&D of products and processes, and the significance of the impact of AMT on operating performance. One factor—cost and time overruns with previous implementation projects—emerged as a deterrent to successful AMT diffusion. Our results also indicate that the use of an outside consultant as a major source of transfer expertise significantly contributes to AMT diffusion success.

Valente, T. (1993). Diffusion of Innovations and Policy Decision-Making. Journal of Communication, 43(1), 30-45. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01247.x.

This article presents a general mathematical model of the diffusion of innovations, which incorporates mass media and interpersonal influence. The model is applied to three classic diffusion data sets: (a) use of hybrid corn, (b) knowledge of Eisenhower's stroke, and (c) doctors’prescription of a new drug. Nonlinear regression is used to estimate the mathematical model. The results show that diffusion of hybrid corn occurred via interpersonal influence, whereas the diffusion of knowledge of Eisenhower's stroke occurred via the mass media. For the diffusion of the new drug, the model shows that doctors who subscribed to few medical journals learned about the drug primarily through interpersonal influence, while doctors who subscribed to many medical journals learned about the drug through both mass media and interpersonal channels. Policy decision-makers can use diffusion models to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of media versus interpersonal campaigns, (b) make comparisons between subgroups, and (c) evaluate the effect of a policy.

Walcott, P., Press, L., & Mchenry, W. (2001). A Framework for Assessing the Global . Journal for the Association of Information Systems, 2(6). Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://jais.aisnet.org//articles/2-6/Wolcott_Main.htm.

This paper presents a comprehensive framework for describing the diffusion of the Internet in a country. It incorporates insights gained from in-depth studies of about 25 countries undertaken since 1997. The framework characterizes diffusion using six dimensions, defining them in detail, and examines how the six dimensions relate to underlying bodies of theory from the national systems of innovation and diffusion of innovations approaches. It addresses how to apply the framework in practice, highlighting Internet diffusion determinants. This framework is useful for business stakeholders wanting to make use of and invest in the Internet, for policy makers debating how to positively (or negatively) influence its use and development, and for researchers studying the large-scale diffusion of complex, interrelated technologies.

Wei, Ran. "Lifestyles and new media: adoption and use of wireless communication technologies in China." New Media & Society 8.6 (2006): 991-1008.

This study examines the relationships between the lifestyles of urban Chinese consumers and the adoption and use of pagers and mobile phones. Based on a probability sample of 7094 respondents from China’s seven most prosperous cities, results show that the respondents identified as yuppies tended to integrate pagers and mobile phones into their conspicuous, westernized and socially active lifestyle. Adopting a pager and mobile phone is found to be a means to achieve social differentiation and identity among this lifestyle segment. The study demonstrates the utility of segmentation analysis in delineating complex relationships among demographics, lifestyles and adoption and use of new media.


Williams , Dimitri . "The Video Game Lightening Rod ." Information, Communication & Society 6.4 (2000): 1-28.

New media technologies have long tapped into social hopes and anxieties, and the turmoil that follows their appearance offers a window into the social tensions of the time. Clashing sets of utopian and dystopian visions have typically resulted in an ambivalent portrayal of such technologies. Video games prove to be no exception. Through a content analysis of media frames in the USA's three leading news magazines, the reception and presentation of video-game technology was tracked over a thirty-year period, 1970-2000. The resulting patterns tell a story of vilification and partial redemption, owing to the mainstream acceptance of the medium and the aging user base. Fears of the negative effects from the new technology were hypothesized to come from a routine set of conservative worries. The results support this hypothesis. Moreover, the frames surrounding games, especially in the 1980s, reveal many of the key social tensions of the times, primarily those surrounding gender roles, the separation of age and racial groups, and the role of female parents within an increasingly technological society. The place of video games within the larger context of media history, and the social causes of the frames are discussed.

 
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